IAS AGRICULTURE SYLLABUS

IAS optional papers: AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE SYLLABUS

Syllabus for the OPTIONAL Paper ‘AGRICULTURE’ for the IAS Main Examination is listed below. It consists of two parts: AGRICULTURE PAPER I and AGRICULTURE PAPER II. PAPER I contains 9 topics while PAPER II contains 8 topics.

AGRICULTURE: PAPER – I SYLLABUS 

Paper I of AGRICULTURE consists of 9 topics:

TOPIC 1: Ecology and its relevance to man

Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agro ecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans. Climate change—International conventions and global initiatives. Green house effect and global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis— Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

Study Material for this Topic:

 Eugene P Odum & Gary W Barret – Fundamentals of Ecology

K. Siddhartha – Atmosphere, Weather and  Climate

TOPIC 2: Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country

Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping, and farming systems. Organic and Precision farming. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.

Study Material for this Topic:

JM Dhaka – Agricultural Economics and Farm Management

Sagar Mondal – A Text Book of Agricultural Extension with Global Innovations

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) – Handbook of Agriculture

TOPIC 3: Important features, and scope of various types of forestry plantations

Important features, and scope of various types of forestry plantations, such as, social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests: Propagation of forest plants. Forest products. Agro-forestry and value addition. Conservation of forest flora and fauna.

Study Material for this Topic:

PK Ramchandran Nair – Introduction to Agroforestry

Craig R Elvich (Editor) – The Overstory Book: Cultivating Connections with Trees

TOPIC 4: Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops

Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds.

Study Material for this Topic:

Zhenghao Xu & Guoning Zhou – Identification and Control of Common Weeds Volume 1

TOPIC 5: Soil—physical, chemical and biological properties

Soil—physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of India. Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertiliser recommendations, integrated nutrient management Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen- use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Efficient phosphorous and potassium use. Problem soils and their reclamation. Soil factors affecting green house gas emission.

Study Material for this Topic:

Dilip Kumar Das – Introductory Soil Science

TD Biswas & SK Mukherjee – Textbook of Soil Science

T Yellamanda Reddy & GH Sankara Reddy – Principles of Agronomy

TOPIC 6: Soil conservation, integrated watershed management

Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management. Dry land agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilising agriculture production in rainfed areas.

Study Material for this Topic:

Menachem Agassi (Editor) – Soil Erosion, Conservation, and Rehabilitation

TOPIC 7: Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production

Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Rainwater harvesting. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution. Irrigation projects in India.

Study Material for this Topic:

MB Kirkham (Editor) – Water Use in Crop Production

K Puttaswamaiah – Irrigation Projects in India: Towards a New Policy

TOPIC 8: Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning

Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Marketing management strategies for development, market intelligence. Price fluctuations and their cost; role of co- operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop Insurance.

Study Material for this Topic:

JM Dhaka – Agricultural Economics and Farm Management

TOPIC 9: Agricultural extension

Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers; Training programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in dissemination of Agricultural technologies. Non-Government Organisation (NGO) and self-help group approach for rural development.

Study Material for this Topic:

S Kannaiyan & A Gopalam – Envisioning Agricultural Education in India (Two Volumes)

Sagar Mondal – A Text Book of Agricultural Extension with Global Innovations

AGRICULTURE SYLLABUS: PAPER II

AGRICULTURE: PAPER-II SYLLABUS

Paper II of AGRICULTURE consists of 8 topics:

TOPIC 1: Cell structure, function and cell cycle

Cell structure, function and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure and function of genetic material. Laws of heredity. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploids and aneuploids. Mutation—and their role in crop improvement. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex- influenced and sex-limited characters.

Study Material for this Topic:

BD Singh – Fundamentals of Genetics

TOPIC 2: History of plant breeding

History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution and domestication of crop plants, center of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources—conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants. Molecular markers and their application in plant improvement. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Heterosis and its exploitation. Somatic hybridization. Breeding for disease and pest resistance. Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement Genetically modified crop plants.

Study Material for this Topic:

BD Singh – Plant Breeding: Principles and Methods

TOPIC 3: Seed production and processing technologies

Seed production and processing technologies. Seed certification, Seed testing and storage. DNA finger printing and seed registration. Role of public and private sectors in seed production, and marketing. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues and its impact on Agriculture.

Study Material for this Topic:

S Padmavathi, M Prakash, S Ezhil Kumar, G Sathiyanarayanan & A Kamraj – A Textbook of Seed Science and Technology

TOPIC 4: Principles of Plant Physiology

Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients. Soil-water-plant relationship.

Study Material for this Topic:

SN Pandey and BK Sinha – Plant Physiology

TOPIC 5: Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis

Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis—modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C3, C4 and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization. Plant growth substances and their role in crop production. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy. Stress physiology—draught, salt and water stress.

Study Material for this Topic:

SN Pandey and BK Sinha – Plant Physiology

TOPIC 6: Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops

Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops. Package practices of major horticultural crops. Protected cultivation and high tech horticulture. Post-harvest technology and value addition of fruits and vegetables. Landscaping and commercial floriculture. Medicinal and aromatic plants. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.

Study Material for this Topic:

Dr N Kumar – Introduction to Horticulture

K Manibhushan Rao – Textbook of Horticulture

TOPIC 7: Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops and their economic importance

Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops and their economic importance. Classification of pests and diseases and their management. Integrated pest and diseases management. Storage pests and their management. Biological control of pests and diseases. Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Plant quarantine measures. Pesticides, their formulation and modes of action.

Study Material for this Topic:

B Vasantharaj David & V Ramamurthy – Elements of Economic Entomology

RS Singh – Introduction to Principles of Plant Pathology

TOPIC 8: Food production and consumption trends in India

Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population—vision 2020. Reasons for grain surplus. National and International food policies. Production, procurement, distribution constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty, Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS), policy implementation in context to globalization. Processing constraints. Relation of food production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern. Food based dietary approaches to eliminate hunger. Nutrient deficiency—Micro nutrient deficiency: Protein Energy Malnutrition or Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PEM or PCM), Micro nutrient deficiency and HRD in context of work capacity of women and children. Food grain productivity and food security.

Study Material for this Topic:

Survey of Indian Agriculture

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) – Handbook of Agriculture

Ministry of Agriculture – Annual Reports

India Food Forum – The India Food Report 2018-2019

Ajinkya Tanksale, JK Jha – Implementing National Food Security Act in India: Issues and Challenges (British Food Journal, Vol 117, Issue: 4, pp. 1315-1335, Emerald Insight).

Department of Agriculture and Cooperatives Statistics at a Glance – Agriculture Statistics

R Rangaswamy – A Textbook of Agricultural Statistics

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *