ANTHROPOLOGY SYLLABUS

ANTHROPOLOGY SYLLABUS

Syllabus for the OPTIONAL Paper ‘ANTHROPOLOGY’ for the IAS Main Examination is listed below. It consists of two parts: PAPER I and PAPER II. PAPER I of ‘ANTHROPOLOGY’ contains 12 topics and PAPER II of ‘ANTHROPOLOGY’ contains 9 topics.

PAPER-I Syllabus anthropolgy

Paper I of ANTHROPOLOGY consists of 12 topics:

topic 1 

SUB-TOPIC 1: Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology

1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Ralph L Beals & Harry Hoijer – An Introduction to Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 2: Relationships with other disciplines

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Ralph L Beals & Harry Hoijer – An Introduction to Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 3: Main branches of Anthropology

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:

(a) Social-cultural Anthropology.

(b) Biological Anthropology.

(c) Archaeological Anthropology.

(d) Linguistic Anthropology.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Ralph L Beals & Harry Hoijer – An Introduction to Anthropology

Carol R Ember, Melvin Ember & Peter N Peregrine Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 4: Human Evolution and emergence of Man

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:

(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.

(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).

(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

William White Howells – Evolution of the Genus Homo

Buettner Janusch J – Origins of Man

SUB-TOPIC 5: Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy

1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Buettner Janusch J – Origins of Man

P Nath – Physical Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 6: Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution 

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :

(a)  Plio-preleistocene hominids in South and East Africa—Australopithecines.

(b) Homoerectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis). 

(c) Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).

(d)  Rhodesian man.

(e)  Homo sapiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

William White Howells – Evolution of the Genus Homo

John Joseph Honigmann – The World of Man

SUB-TOPIC 7: The biological basis of Life

1.7 The biological basis of Life: The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Harrison Geoffery Ainsworth – Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation …

Ram Nath Sharma & Rajindra K Sharma – Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 8: Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology & Cultural Evolution

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.

(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:

(i) Paleolithic

(ii) Mesolithic

(iii) Neolithic

(iv) Chalcolithic

(v) Copper-Bronze Age

(vi) Iron Age

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

William A Haviland, Harald EL Prins, Dana Walrath, Bunny McBride – Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge

TOPIC 2

SUB-TOPIC 1: The Nature of Culture

2.1 The Nature of Culture : The concept and Characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

John Beattie – Other Cultures: Aims, Methods and Achievements in Social Anthropology

William A Haviland, Harald EL Prins, Dana Walrath, Bunny McBride – Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge

SUB-TOPIC 2: The Nature of Society

2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

DN Majumdar – An Introduction to Social Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 3: Marriage

2.3 Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Carol R Ember, Melvin Ember & Peter N Peregrine – Anthropology

Melville J Herskovits – Cultural Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 4: Family

2.4 Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Ram Nath Sharma & Rajindra K Sharma – Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 5: Kinship

2.5 Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

William A Haviland, Harald EL Prins, Dana Walrath, Bunny McBride – Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge

 

TOPIC 3: Economic Organization

3. Economic Organization: Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Naresh Kumar Vaid – Economy and Social Relations

TOPIC 4: Political Organization and Social Control

4. Political Organization and Social Control: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple Societies.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

DN Majumdar – An Introduction to Social Anthropology

TOPIC 5: RELIGION

5. Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

William A Haviland, Harald EL Prins, Dana Walrath, Bunny McBride – The Essence of Anthropology

topic 6: anthropological theories

6. Anthropological theories: 

(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and

Frazer)

(b) Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)

(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural— Functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)

(d) Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)

(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)

(f) Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)

(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)

(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)

(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)

(j) Post-modernism in anthropology.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Marvin Harris – The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture

VS Upadhyaya, Gaya Pandey – History of Anthropological Thought

TOPIC 7: Culture, Language and Communication

7. Culture, Language and Communication: 

Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Philip Stein & Bruce Rowe – Physical Anthropology

John Joseph Honigmann – The World of Man

TOPIC 8: Research methods in Anthropology

8. Research methods in Anthropology: 

(a) Field work tradition in anthropology

(b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology

(c) Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.

(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Anil Mahajan & Surinder Nath – Application Areas of Anthropology

Abhik Ghosh – Meetings with the Other: The Techniques and Methods of Anthropoligical Fieldwork

TOPIC 9: HUMAN GENETICS

SUB-TOPIC 1: Methods and Application

9.1 Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

B R K Shukla – Physical Anthropology and Human Genetics

SUB-TOPIC 2: Mendelian genetics

9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

B R K Shukla – Physical Anthropology and Human Genetics

SUB-TOPIC 3: Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Harrison Geoffery Ainsworth – Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation …

SUB-TOPIC 4: Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

(b) Sex chromosomal aberration-Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.

(c) Autosomal aberrations-Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.

(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Harrison Geoffery Ainsworth – Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation …

SUB-TOPIC 5: Race and racism

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Harrison Geoffery Ainsworth – Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation …

SUB-TOPIC 6: Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker: ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio- ecomomic groups.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

B R K Shukla – Physical Anthropology and Human Genetics

SUB-TOPIC 7: Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology: Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Melville J Herskovits – Cultural Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 8: Epidemiological Anthropology

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Melville J Herskovits – Cultural Anthropology

TOPIC 10: Concept of human growth and Development

10. Concept of human growth and Development: Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.

—Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.

—Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations

—Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

William A Haviland, Harald EL Prins, Dana Walrath, Bunny McBride – The Essence of Anthropology

TOPIC 11

SUB-TOPIC 1: FERTILITY

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

SUB-TOPIC 2: biological, social and cultural DEMOGRAPHIC THEORIES

11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.

SUB-TOPIC 3: Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

US Misra – Unifying Anthropology

John Beattie – Other Cultures: Aims, Methods and Achievements in Social Anthropology

TOPIC 12: Applications of Anthropology

12. Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthroplogy in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthroplogy, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Anil Mahajan & Surinder Nath – Application Areas of Anthropology

Surinder Nath – An Introduction to Forensic Anthropology

Abhik Ghosh – Meetings with the Other: The Techniques and Methods of Anthropoligical Fieldwork

ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER – II SYLLABUS

Paper II of ANTHROPOLOGY consists of 9 topics:

TOPIC 1

SUB-TOPIC 1: Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization

1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization— Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post- Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

NCERT BOOKS – Indian Society and Social Change

AL Basham – The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the History and Culture of India

SUB-TOPIC 2: Palaeo

1.2 Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Dibyendu Kanti Bhattacharya – An Outline of Indian Prehistory

SUB-TOPIC 3: Ethno-archaeology in India

1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethno- archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Dibyendu Kanti Bhattacharya – An Outline of Indian Prehistory

TOPIC 2

2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Nadeem Hasnain – Indian Anthropology

TOPIC 3

SUB-TOPIC 1: The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system

3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Nadeem Hasnain – Indian Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 2: Caste system in India

3.2 Caste system in India—Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas – Caste in Modern India: And Other Essays

SUB-TOPIC 3: Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex

3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas – Social Change in Modern India

SUB-TOPIC 4: Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity

3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

NCERT BOOKS – Indian Society and Social Change

Yogendra Singh – Modernization of Indian Tradition: A Systematic Study of Social Change

TOPIC 4

4. Emergence, growth and development in India— Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi & Binay Kumar Rai – The Tribal Culture of India

Nadeem Hasnain – Tribal India

TOPIC 5

SUB-TOPIC 1: IndianVillage

5.1 IndianVillage—Significane of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Nadeem Hasnain – Indian Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 2: Linguistic and religious minorities

5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Nadeem Hasnain – Indian Anthropology

SUB-TOPIC 3: Indigenous and exogenous processes

5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio- cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Yogendra Singh – Modernization of Indian Tradition: A Systematic Study of Social Change

TOPIC 6

SUB-TOPIC 1: Tribal situation in India

6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Nadeem Hasnain – Tribal India

SUB-TOPIC 2: Problems of the tribal Communities

6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, under- employment, health and nutrition.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Nadeem Hasnain – Tribal India

Naresh Kumar Vaid – Who Cares For Tribal Development

SUB-TOPIC 3: Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement

6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Naresh Kumar Vaid – Who Cares For Tribal Development

Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas – Caste in Modern India: And Other Essays

TOPIC 7

SUB-TOPIC 1: Problems of exploitatioN

7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas – Caste in Modern India: And Other Essays

Naresh Kumar Vaid – Who Cares For Tribal Development

Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India – Annual  Reports

Ministry of Social Justice, Government of India – Annual Reports

SUB-TOPIC 2: Social change and contemporary tribal societies

7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies : Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

RC Verma – Indian Tribes Through The Ages

SUB-TOPIC 3: The concept of ethnicity

7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Nadeem Hasnain – Tribal India

TOPIC 8

SUB-TOPIC 1: Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam

8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

RC Verma – Indian Tribes Through The Ages

SUB-TOPIC 2: Tribe and nation state

8.2 Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Nadeem Hasnain – Tribal India

TOPIC 9

SUB-TOPIC 1: History of administration of tribal areas

9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.Os in tribal development.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

RC Verma – Indian Tribes Through The Ages

SUB-TOPIC 2: Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development

9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi & Binay Kumar Rai – The Tribal Culture of India

SUB-TOPIC 3: Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism

9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.

Material that should be used for preparing this Topic.

Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas – Social Change in Modern India

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