BOTANY SYLLABUS

BOTANY  SYLLABUS

Syllabus for the OPTIONAL Paper ‘BOTANY’ for the IAS Main Examination is listed below. It consists of two parts: BOTANY PAPER I and BOTANY PAPER II. PAPER I contains 7 topics while PAPER II contains 5 topics.

PAPER – I BOTANY SYLLABUS

Paper I of ‘BOTANY’ consists of 7 topics:

TOPIC 1:  Microbiology and Plant Pathology

Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis.

Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins. Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.

Study Material for this Topic:

Dr CB Powar & Dr HF Daginawala– General Microbiology Volume I

Dr CB Powar & Dr HF Daginawala – General  Microbiology Volume II

RS Singh – Introduction to Principles of Plant Pathology

PD Sharma – Microbiology and Plant Pathology

TOPIC 2: Cryptogams

Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes- structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.

Study Material for this Topic:

Vashishta BR, Sinha AK & Anil Kumar  – Botany for Degree Students: FUNGI

Vashishta BR, Sinha AK & Adarsh Kumar – Botany for Degree Students: BRYOPHYTA

Vashishta BR, Sinha AK & VP Singh – Botany for Degree Students: ALGAE

Vashishta BR – Botany for Degree Classes: GYMNOSPERMS

SN Pandey – A Textbook of Pteridophyta

TOPIC 3: Phanerogams

Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymnosperms. Classification and distribution of gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques.

Study Material for this Topic:

Dr BP Pandey – Plant Anatomy

Katherine Esau – Anatomy of Seed Plants

TOPIC 4: Angiosperms

Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency.

Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxomomy and chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.

Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families— Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae.

Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.

Study Material for this Topic:

R Nair – Taxonomy of Angiosperms

Sharma OP – Plant Taxonomy

TOPIC 5: Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization

Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm—its development and function. Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony, apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.

Study Material for this Topic:

V Raghvan – Developmental Biology of Gametophytes

6. PlantResourceDevelopment 

Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

Study Material for this Topic:

Salisbury and Ross – Plant Physiology

7. Morphogenesis 

Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.

Study Material for this Topic:

Dr CB Powar & Dr HF Daginawala– General Microbiology Volume I

Dr CB Powar & Dr HF Daginawala – General  Microbiology Volume II

PAPER – II BOTANY SYLLABUS

Paper II of ‘BOTANY’ consists of 5 topics:

TOPIC 1: Cell Biology

Techniques of cell biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells—structural and ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport; Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes; Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction Mitosis and meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle.

Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B- chromosomes —structure, behaviour and significance.

Study Material for this Topic:

De Robertis & Ambrose – Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Cell and Molecular Biology

TOPIC 2: Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution

Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping, function); Sex chromosomes and sex- linked inheritance; sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).

Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories.

Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

Study Material for this Topic:

Monroe W Strickberger – Genetics

Dr Vir Bala Rastogi – Genetics

Dr PS Verma & Dr VK Agarwal – Genetic Engineering

TOPIC 3: Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics

Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and techniques—probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH. Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson). Correlation and regression.

Study Material for this Topic:

PK Gupta – Cytology, Genetics, Biotechnology and Biostatistics: A Textbook for University Students

Dr PS Verma & Dr VK Agarwal – Genetic Engineering

PD Sharma – Microbiology and Plant Pathology

TOPIC 4: Physiology and Biochemistry

Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis—photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of pholem transport, Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)—electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation.

Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances—their chemical nature, role and applications in agri- horticulture; growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular basis and manipulation.

Study Material for this Topic:

Salisbury and Ross – Plant Physiology

George Howard Bell, James Norman Davidson, John Norman Davidson & Donald Emslie-Smith – Textbook of Physiology and Biochemistry

5. Ecology and Plant Geography

Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including phytoreme- diation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.

Forest types of India—‘Ecological and ecomomic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention of Biological Diversity, Farmers’ Rights; and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles. Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species; Environmetal Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.

Study Material for this Topic:

Kathleen C Weathers, David L Strayer & Gene E Likens – Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science

HG Champion – A Revised Forest Types of India

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