IAS CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS

CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS

Syllabus for the OPTIONAL Paper ‘CHEMISTRY’ for the IAS Main Examination is listed below. It consists of two parts: CHEMISTRY PAPER I and CHEMISTRY PAPER II. PAPER I contains 15 topics while PAPER II contains 7 topics.

chemistry PAPER – I syllabus 

Paper I of ‘CHEMISTRY’ consists of 15 topics:

topic 1: Atomic Structure

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave function, particle in one- dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

Study Material for this Topic:

CG Lyons, S McLintock, Nora H Lumb – A Concise Textbook of Organic Chemistry: The Commonwealth and International Library of Science Technology Engineering and Liberal Studies

Rebecca L Johnson – Atomic Structure

topic 2: Chemical bonding

Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments; Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy;

Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding H2 +, H2 He +toNe, NO, CO, HF, CN, Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.

Study Material for this Topic:

OP Agarwal – Bonding and Shape of Organic Molecules, Stereo Chemistry of carbon compound:  Reactions and reagents

topic 3: Solid State

Crystal systems; Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell; Bragg’s law; X-ray diffraction by crystals; Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values; Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF; Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.

Study Material for this Topic:

Anthony R West – Solid State Chemistry and its Applications

Jonathan Clayden, Nick Greeves & Stuart Warren – Organic Chemistry

topic 4: The Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon

Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, and critical phenomena and liquefaction of gases; Maxwell’s distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion; Thermal conductivity and viscosity of ideal gases.

Study Material for this Topic:

Carlo Cercignani & Ester Gabetta (Editors) – Transport Phenomena and Kinetic Theory: Applications to Gases, Semiconductors, Photons and Biological Systems

Stanley H Pine – Organic Chemistry

topic 5: Liquid State

Kelvin equation; Surface tension and surface enercy, wetting and contact angle, interfacial tension and capillary action.

Study Material for this Topic:

P Egelstaff – An Introduction to the Liquid State

CG Lyons, S McLintock, Nora H Lumb – A Concise Textbook of Organic Chemistry: The Commonwealth and International Library of Science Technology Engineering and Liberal Studies

topic 6: Thermodynamics

Work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various processes, entropy-reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; Thermodynamic equation of state; Maxwell relations; Temperature, volume and pressure dependenceofU, H, A, G, Cp and Cv, and ; J-T effect and inversion temperature; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem, introductory idea of third law of thermodynamics.

Study Material for this Topic:

HC Van Ness – Understanding Thermodynamics

Arun Bahl & BS Bahl – A Textbok of Organic Chemistry

topic 7: Phase Equilibria and Solutions

Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids—upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.

Study Material for this Topic:

Tarek Ahmed – Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations

CG Lyons, S McLintock, Nora H Lumb – A Concise Textbook of Organic Chemistry: The Commonwealth and International Library of Science Technology Engineering and Liberal Studies

topic 8: Electrochemistry 

Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.

Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.

Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques: amperometry, ion selective electrodes and their use.

Study Material for this Topic:

Samuel Glasstone – An Introduction to Electrochemistry

Cynthia G Zoski – Handbook of Electrochemistry

topic 9: Chemical Kinetics

Differential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions; Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; Branching chain and explosions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods. Collisions and transition state theories.

Study Material for this Topic:

Margaret Robson Wright – Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

Gurdeep Raj – Chemical Kinetics

Peter Atkins, Julio de Paula – Atkins’ Physical Chemistry

topic 10: Photochemistry

Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.

Study Material for this Topic:

KK Rohatgi & Mukherjee – Fundamentals of Photochemistry

Peter Sykes & BH Kishan – A Guide book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry for the JEE

topic 11: Surface Phenomena and Catalysis

Adsorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents; Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.

Study Material for this Topic:

Gabor A Samorjai & Yimin Li – Introducing Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

topic 12: Bio-inorganic Chemistry 

Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferrodoxins.

Study Material for this Topic:

K Hussain Reddy – Bioinorganic Chemistry

JE House – Inorganic Chemistry

topic 13: Coordination Chemistry

(i) Bonding in transition of metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and elctronic spectra of metal complexes.

(ii)  Isomerism in coordination compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planar complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.

(iii) EAN rule, Synthesis structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.

(iv) Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization; Compounds with metal—metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

Study Material for this Topic:

RK Sharma – Textbook of Coordination Chemistry

JD Lee – Concise Inorganic Chemistry

GD Tuli & PL Soni – The Language of Chemistry or Chemical Equations

topic 14: Main Group Chemistry 

Boranes, borazines, phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene, silicates and silicones, Interhalogen

compounds; Sulphur—nitrogen compounds,

noble gas compounds.

Study Material for this Topic:

W Henderson – Main Group Chemistry

GS Manku – Theoretical Principles of Inorganic Chemistry

JE House – Inorganic Chemistry

topic 15: General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Element 

Lanthanides and actinides: separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.

Study Material for this Topic:

Helen C Aspinall – Chemistry of the f-Block Elements

Brian J Hathaway, Clair Murphy & Brian Murphy – Basic Principles of Inorganic Chemistry: Making the Connections

chemistry PAPER – II syllabus   

Paper II of ‘CHEMISTRY’ consists of 7 topics:

topic 1: Delocalised Covalent Bonding 

Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones.

Study Material for this Topic:

Brian J Hathaway, Clair Murphy & Brian Murphy – Basic Principles of Inorganic Chemistry: Making the Connections

TOPIC 2: Reaction mechanisms, Reactive intermediates, Substitution reactions, Elimination reactions, Addition reactions, Reactions and Rearrangements   

(i) Reaction mechanisms : General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanisms or organic reactions : isotopies, mathod cross- over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.

Study Material for this Topic:

Gurdeep Raj – Chemical Kinetics

(ii) Reactive intermediates: Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carboniumions and carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.

Study Material for this Topic:

Maria E Ariza, Gautam N Bijur & Marshall V Williams – Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity

(iii) Substitution reactions:—Sn 1, Sn 2, and Sn i, mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compounds including heterocyclic compounds— pyrrole, furan, thiophene and indole.

Study Material for this Topic:

CG Lyons, S McLintock, Nora H Lumb – A Concise Textbook of Organic Chemistry: The Commonwealth and International Library of Science Technology Engineering and Liberal Studies

Reinhard Bruckner – Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reaction Mechanisms

(iv) Elimination reactions:—E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions— Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination—acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.

Study Material for this Topic:

Reinhard Bruckner – Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reaction Mechanisms

(v) Addition reactions:—Electrophilic addition to C=C and C≡C; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C≡N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.

Study Material for this Topic:

Reinhard Bruckner – Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reaction Mechanisms

(vi) Reactions and Rearrangements:—(a) Pinacol- pinacolone, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer-Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner—Meerwein rearrangements.

(b) Aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler- Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.

Study Material for this Topic:

Reinhard Bruckner – Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reaction Mechanisms

topic 3: Pericyclic reactions

Pericyclic reactionsClassification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules— electrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5], FMO approach.

Study Material for this Topic:

Sethuraman Sankararaman – Pericyclic Reactions – A Textbook

TOPIC 4: Preparation and Properties of Polymers, Biopolymers

i. Preparation and Properties of Polymers: Organic polymers polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber.

ii. Biopolymers: Structure of proteins, DNA and
RNA.

Study Material for this Topic:

John W Nicholson – The Chemistry of Polymers

TOPIC 5: Synthetic Uses of Reagents 

OsO4, HlO4 ,CrO3 ,Pb(OAc)4 ,SeO2 ,NBS,B2 H6, Na- Liquid NH, LiAIH4 NaBH4 , n-BuLi, MCPBA.

Study Material for this Topic:

OP Agarwal – Bonding and Shape of Organic Molecules, Stereo Chemistry of carbon compound – Reactions and reagents

TOPIC 6: Photochemistry

PhotochemistryPhotochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.

Study Material for this Topic:

KK Rohatgi & Mukherjee – Fundamentals of Photochemistry

TOPIC 7: Spectroscopy

Principle and applications in structure elucidation:

Rotational—Diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.

Vibrational—Diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.

Electronic—Singlet and triplet states.n→∗and →∗transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls Woodward-Fieser rules; Charge transfer spectra.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR): Basic principle; chemical shift and spin-spin interaction and coupling constants.

Mass Spectrometry:—Parentpeak, basepeak, metastable peak, McLafferty rearrangement.

Study Material for this Topic:

PS Kalsi – Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds

William Kemp – Organic Spectroscopy

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *