IAS GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS

GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS

Syllabus for the OPTIONAL Paper ‘GEOGRAPHY’ for the IAS Main Examination is listed below. It consists of two parts: GEOGRAPHY PAPER I and GEOGRAPHY PAPER II. PAPER I contains 4 topics while PAPER II contains 10 topics.

PAPER- I GEOGRAPHY syllabus 

PAPER I of ‘GEOGRAPHY’ contains 4 topics

PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY

TOPIC 1: Physical Geography

1. Geomorphology

Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology; Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Savindra Singh – Geomorphology

2. Climatology

 Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronts; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s, and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

DS Lal – Climatology

K. Siddhartha – Atmosphere, Weather and Climate

3. Oceanography

 Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Alan Trujillo & Harold Thurman – Essentials of Oceanography

4. Biogeography

Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

SW Buol, RJ Southard, RC Graham & PA McDaniel – Soil Genesis and Classification

GOH CHENG LEONG – Certificate Physical And Human Geography

Savindra Singh Physical Geography

Alan Strahler & Arthur Strahler – Introducing Physical Geography

Richard H Bryant Physical Geography: Made Simple

5. Environmental Geography

 Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Eugene P Odum & Gary W Barret – Fundamentals of Ecology 

HM Saxena – Environmental Geography

TOPIC 2: Human Geography

1. Perspectives in Human Geography

Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Majid Husain – Human Geography

TOPIC 3: Economic Geography

World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Gillian C Morgan, Cheng Leong Goh –Human and Economic Geography

TOPIC 4: Population and Settlement Geography

Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.

Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Majid Husain – Human Geography

R Ramachandran – Urbanization and Urban Systems

Peter Hall & Mark Tewdwr-Jones – Urban and Regional Planning

  • Regional Planning:

 Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Peter Hall & Mark Tewdwr-Jones – Urban and Regional Planning 

  • Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: 

System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Majid Husain – Human Geography

GEOGRAPHY PAPER II SYLLABUS

PAPER II of ‘GEOGRAPHY’ contains 10 topics

TOPIC 1: Physical Setting

Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Majid Hussain – Geography of India

TOPIC 2: Resources

Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

DR Khuller – India a Comprehensive Geography

TOPIC 3: Agriculture

Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social- forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Gopal Singh – A Geography of India

TOPIC 4: Industry

Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

TC Sharma & O Coutinho – Economic and Commercial Geography of India

Majid Hussain – Geography of India

TOPIC 5: Transport, Communication and Trade

Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

TC Sharma & O Coutinho – Economic and Commercial Geography of India

TOPIC 6: Cultural Setting

Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter- regional, intraregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Majid Hussain – Geography of India

TOPIC 7: Settlements

Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Majid Hussain – Geography of India

TOPIC 8: Regional Development and Planning

Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Mahesh Chand, VK Puri – Regional Planning in India

TOPIC 9: Political Aspects

Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

RD Dikshit – Political Geography: The Spatiality of Politics

Majid Hussain – Geography of India

TOPIC 10: Contemporary Issues 

Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.

Majid Hussain – Geography of India

Gopal Singh – A Geography of India

NOTE : 

Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

Material that should be used to prepare this topic.  

The Oxford School Atlas

The Blackswan Atlas

K. Siddhartha – Geography Through Maps

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